Aquaculture is the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of fish, shellfish, plants, algae and other organisms in all types of water environments.
As the demand for seafood has increased, technology has made it possible to grow food in coastal marine waters and the open ocean. Aquaculture is a method used to produce food and other commercial products, restore habitat and replenish wild stocks, and rebuild populations of threatened and endangered species.
There are two main types of aquaculture—marine and freshwater. NOAA efforts primarily focus on marine aquaculture, which refers to farming species that live in the ocean.
In the United States, marine aquaculture produces numerous species including oysters, clams, mussels, shrimp, seaweeds, and fish such as salmon, black sea bass, sablefish, yellowtail, and pompano. There are many ways to farm marine shellfish, including “seeding” small shellfish on the sea floor or by growing them in sinking or floating cages. Marine fish farming is typically done in net pens in the water or in tanks on land.
U.S. freshwater aquaculture produces species such as catfish and trout. Freshwater aquaculture primarily takes place in ponds or other manmade systems.
NOAA is committed to supporting an aquaculture industry that is economically, environmentally and socially sustainable. NOAA experts and partners work to understand the environmental effects of aquaculture in different settings and provide best management practices to help reduce the risk of negative impacts.
NOTE: About half of seafood production globally comes from aquaculture.
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